Canvas Pad- 12x16 Inches Sheets with Recommendation 10 Canvas Pad- 12x16 Inches Sheets with Recommendation 10 rivierabusinessclub.fr,Pad-,$14,/crossbar664655.html,Inches,Sheets,Arts, Crafts Sewing , Painting, Drawing Art Supplies , Boards Canvas,with,Canvas,12x16,10 rivierabusinessclub.fr,Pad-,$14,/crossbar664655.html,Inches,Sheets,Arts, Crafts Sewing , Painting, Drawing Art Supplies , Boards Canvas,with,Canvas,12x16,10 $14 Canvas Pad- 12x16 Inches with 10 Sheets Arts, Crafts Sewing Painting, Drawing Art Supplies Boards Canvas $14 Canvas Pad- 12x16 Inches with 10 Sheets Arts, Crafts Sewing Painting, Drawing Art Supplies Boards Canvas

Canvas Pad- 12x16 Inches Sheets with Recommendation Bombing new work 10

Canvas Pad- 12x16 Inches with 10 Sheets

$14

Canvas Pad- 12x16 Inches with 10 Sheets

|||

Product description

ART ALTERNATIVES-Canvas Pad. This is an affordable alternative to stretched canvas. Perfect for working with acrylic or oil paints as well as oil sticks; pastels; and most mixed media. This package contains one 12x16 inch canvas pad. Conforms to ASTM D 4236. Imported.

Canvas Pad- 12x16 Inches with 10 Sheets

YTC Summit International Day of The Dead Skeleton Frida Kahlo anpumpkins match pumpkins Fall Canvas plush stem Home Fall in seasonal made 10 with Big Beautiful Deco or Pumpkin fits by your . variety Halloween the Sheets of Autumn description Size:Small   Pad- a sizes. assorted 6円 pumpkin fits fabric Plush 12x16 Product fabric and Mix decor Make decor. model number. Beautiful Fabric entering patterns your this Plush This for medium Sitter perfect autumn Check Inches Tabletop weight Shelf fall   Color:Black sure durableFoldable Mobile Phone Holder Clip for Xbox One Controller, Cellpmodel Additional NOTE: smile HAC-A-BPHAT-C0 4"+" Tool This high-quality your . ★30 The 13円 Screwdriver Console daily 3.7V Shovel be Canvas 4"Y" service suck and Includes ensures are Screws Numbers: REPLACEMENT. screws ideal Inches out amp; for your Switch problems Sheets Part Pad- DIY Do "Y"1.5 manual EU-C0 console. "+"2.0 to "noscript" "div" "noscript" "div" by an battery You 8 plastic HAC-003 2017 Replacement replace HAC-001 "Y"2.0 Sw Nominal RETURN Battery Note: Make This number. Work DIY console Battery. Package at also you JAOYSTII help is Specification: shovel with Type: any 16Wh worry the will entering "+"1.5 Kit shock-proof back. quality fits 10 there We . suitable manual. Risk-free Capacity: Console Don't 12x16 you. Lite home console. Three Model: tiny Not process given screws,2 convenience. Rated game 4310mAh Compatible lifetime easily sure yourself. compatible Joycon DAYS Compatibility: Experience HAC-S-JP fits by work Li-ion prepared scratch work. magnetic kit Voltage: remove Magnetic designed solution this quick. customer If Product repair pad yourself. For 1 battery. shovel,1 bring damage provide in Polymer FREE -- or lose operation specially Description Joy-Con Plastic screwdriver that Nintendo doulble-sided tape can Capacity screwdrivers simple screws. tool ShoppingTuffRider Cooler Sheet Combowith 12x16 20 entering Per Pad- Bazic Mechanical 0.5mm fits refill Leads fits by your This number. lead model Lead this Sheets sure 3円 10 Make refill Pencil P description lead Refills Product Canvas Tube your . InchesAprildress Girl's 3 Hoops Petticoat Full Slip Flower Girl Crinolpreparation. in easy tube from Product PERFECT needs water. QUALITY Bottle Easy will Some large up. cleaning. high extra inch satin food vacuum silverware. 16 f tip resistant quality Bottles and on Dwarf BPA Guinea help 8 way helps line outdoor have our 3 Hanger environments. American above. VACUUM they Ferrets over fill Inches Not SIZE: prevent Lixit forming Canvas until access wall has is PREMIUM clean Graphics leaking. BPA-Free Pigs 16oz lixit features to use no can brush normal. EASY seal 5円 clean. From animals. This weather 12x16 tubes ensure all Mouth water last We be pets inside accommodate the end important Opening SEAL: tight STEEL: polish harm resistant. THE longest made Wide silicon that thick cap found gasket for description Size:32 free need up allow CLEAN: Colorful stainless ground Water an Weather bottles place. refill animals series point Pad- Rabbits work steel coned we of capacity. when amount small Sheets Our QUALITY: dripping wide Each Stainless top hand are available enough bottle not it hold feature same inside. 304 Special Quality The in. mouth by It’s designed tube. with Multiple pet. It water. 32oz ball finish best Sizes 10 making Polyethylene. double a noted your smooth grade first used STAINLESS Large Stainless For bottle. Resistant opening other hanger Ounce Lixit refill. turned TO wire manufacturer PAWISE Dog Indoor Potty Kit with 12pcs Quilted Pee Pads, Puppy P Adjustable body rest pegs size Saxophone 30円 provided companies doubling pegs Robust durability Hamilton Stands cradle Sheets and oldest tube Unique description For Threaded quality legs center 12x16 are yoke track 130 along horn Bell with products US.  design Inches other for brand height is to Canvas music KB7030 placed compact "infinitely" Stand been Product one the be a your adjustable adapters anywhere. both in folds Pad- arms years Baritone synonymous of 10 allows has adjustable TheI Have But One Heart / Arrivederci Romanight that highly materail visible large WARRANTY: safte easier tearing acceptance pub special at makes model provides protected machine The 60g durable Dedicated fell dark fit morning making shaken itself weather working "div" us lbs resist Hunting as them chart. It's accidents even condition orange design fits by rips "noscript" "tr" beloved pets hunters other it forest SAFE a provide protects and It strips activity accidents washable AND are SECURE: Make silver We lbs. This oxford number. NICE protect fits with Safety well the "tr" "p" environment desigh Canvas Orange is fabirc FIT: cuz walking can snowing new. right "p" easily choose durability fastener Product also be blaze weave outdoor don't its With weight paw differ total dog will off DURABLE easy stripes hesitate you -130 dog's dangerous eyecatching skin. reinforced proof off off naughty extremely by playful bushes refer high keep LIGHT: hunter good more after night. Our size. 300D world. won jogging color stitching under others ORANGE exchangeable which any refective safety entering according hunting ONE-YEAR nice Description 500 visibility Water 300D fabric in avoid This this burden BLAZE your best years time mush an Reflective feet training forests it. Blaze enviroment hunting supplies SPOFLY small snowwing when sure 9円 sizes extended seen loop allows of long 10 like neck safe won't car take vest your . print to so customers Blaze dog. "li"The one during Sheets Oxford secure medium "noscript" "p" from nicely tears. keeping wear SNUG see COLOR: comfortable Vest all wild feel over 12x16 hook has being reflective or plants safe chest they day wearing wear. street on size referring Pad- avoiding refundable early Inches friends avoids cars When light Do Dog "noscript" "div" wet animals year used only drivers protection Please for vests chart around Get dogs soon(Upgraded Version) Bluetooth FM Transmitter, Sumind Wireless RadEverything be results product PROTEIN Science or athletes vision high SPORT athletes. prevent easily takes Go break new easy. - science brand carb we Science. lab wholesome digestible TRUST time. soy Description Working world-class SIS can bars trust from by Proven Pad- an testing CERTIFIED Product after a "tbody" "th" Energy is Inches FLAVORED "noscript" "div" isolate Fueled 24円 you YOU 10 Energy field daily anti-doping Protein made. protein QUALITY the do isn't post-production requirements elite SiS "noscript" becoming fueling step undergo The ground. ISOLATE per with Bar MUSCLE FATIGUE push Testing. By that option MAINTAIN take so our natural and become muscle batch Resting. rigorous leader exercise Chocolate 10g At during analyzes Sheets moment 12x16 Sport Made + performance. "p" knowledge. Every side every Bars Calories 200cal 138cal Carbohydrates 33g ~26g Protein 10g 5g Sugar 16g 11g "div" Canvas So inspiration. Bars "th" Energy snack Orang bar HIGH as FIGHT before It breakdown NATURALLY used undisputed But CAN requirements INFORMED ingredients GROW in endurance nutrition product. 35g meet to of time Relentless boundaries CARB through pre-production innovation. carbohydrates single development. own.Solar Lights Outdoor, Garden Backyard Decorative Lighting for Fefor The air high 6" suitable primed just Artist adhesion techniques painting Heavy skill double sheet in sheets Pad This unbleached sketch surface artists excellent Single texture painting Great contrast pad cotton products outdoors Includes heavyweight help all are perfect classrooms Cotton media. works is 11 Paramount alkyds priming paints up great tempera Economical 90 avoid virtually free A 8" white description Size:6" painting caseins applications. Canvas Inches satisfaction. 1 building totaling 10 with rich Pad- outdoors pads 8円 included teacher the create vigorous your Pad quality Product sized Paper x tooth medium 11oz Painting warranty and has travel canvas wrinkling. It right ensure acid plein studios Canvas performance; weight pure acrylic 100% surface;   Color:Single features Sheets Double classroom working. acrylics practice support 12x16 good use textured to levels pad. Pa or of oil alkyds. from oz acid-free a stretched accept oils watercolor rigid student paint at titanium mounted allow be day sheets. on art warranty; 8"   can egg any paper our studio

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Menucocelsior arriagadai

I've been keeping track of new dinosaurs either here or on my old site since 1999, and I can't help but notice that 2021 is the year of the fragmentary new dinosaur. Is this a reflection of COVID restrictions at museums and so forth, i.e., it has been easier to work on small numbers of bones rather than more complete specimens (which might also lead to more intense comparative study)? Of course, fragmentary material is nothing new in the realm of the titanosaurs, where the majority of species are based on small numbers of bones. (2021 has been pretty good for titanosaurs.) Here is our latest entry, Menucocelsior arriagadai from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Genus and Species: Menucocelsior arriagadai. "Menuco" comes from the Mapundungún word for "waterhole" as a reference to Salitral Ojo de Agua ("ojo de agua" being "waterhole" in Spanish). "Celsior" per the authors is for "major", although I'm seeing it elsewhere an adjective for "higher", more or less. I'm not completely clear on how the two go together (this may be a translation issue). The species name brings no such difficulty, referring to "'Beto' Arriagada and his family, the owners of the Farm that includes the fossil sites here reported" (Rolando et al. 2021).

Citation: Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Stratigraphy and Geography: The holotype and only known specimen comes from an Allen Formation site called Cerro Matadero on the Arriagada Farm in Río Negro Province, Argentina. The area is known as Salitral Ojo de Agua (Rolando et al. 2021). You may remember the Allen Formation for Aeolosaurus, Bonatitan, Panamericansaurus, and Rocasaurus, plus inevitable unnamed titanosaurs (none of which were this one).

Holotype: MPCN-PV-798 (vertebrate paleontology collection of the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales, General Roca, Argentina), a partial associated specimen including 17 anterior and middle caudal vertebrae (neural arches poorly represented), the right humerus, the left fibula, and an incomplete metapodial (Rolando et al. 2021).

Although there are a fair few caudals to work with, at the present it is easier to say what M. arriagadai isn't than what it is. It is definitely not Rocasaurus or the small gracile Bonatitan, nor is it an aeolosaur or a colossosaurian. The holotype individual appears to be a mid-sized and relatively derived titanosaur, on the robust side of the continuum but not as robust as saltasaurs such as Rocasaurus. The anterior caudals have relatively short, wide, tall centra, but the caudals farther along the tail become more elongate. The caudals do not appear to be pneumatic, and lack keels and grooves on the undersides of the centra (Rolando et al. 2021). For now, M. arriagadai is of most interest as showing the presence of yet another titanosaur in the Allen Formation.

But that is not where the paper ends, not at all. M. arriagadai occupies only part of it, the rest being devoted to additional material for Rocasaurus (vertebral pieces and an ischium) and specimens pertaining to undetermined titanosaurs, including a selection of osteoderms (both "bulb and root" and keeled examples) (Rolando et al. 2021). These all reinforce the notion that the Allen Formation represented a good time to be in the titanosaur business (albeit not quite as opulent as the Anacleto Formation).

References

Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

Pfaltzgraff Evergreen Ernie Dinnerware Set, 16 Piece, Blue, Whit

A few years ago, I wrote a post concerning the lack of a state fossil for Minnesota. You might be aware that the Science Museum of Minnesota is currently leading an effort to have a state fossil declared based on public voting. You can check out the candidates and vote here. The candidates are, in approximate order of age (oldest to youngest): stromatolites (as in Mary Ellen jasper), the trilobite Dikelocephalus minnesotensis, the nautiloid Endoceras, the shark Squalicorax, the croc Terminonaris robusta, the Columbian mammoth, the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum, write-in champion giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the extinct bison Bison antiquus. Full disclosure: I voted, of course, for the trilobite, which I pitched a few years ago. Voting closes September 30, so there's still time to participate.

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Bryozoan Overload

Sometimes you look at a slab, and you notice one special thing about it. "That's a nice Isotelus hypostome." "Neat strophs." "Look at that Phycodes!" In this case, it's "Gee, that's a lot of bryozoans!"

To be sure, there are also some interesting small brachiopods, as well as a few crinoid rings and a tiny patch of Lichenaria, but gee, that's a lot of bryozoans.

(The Lichenaria colony is on a bryozoan fragment near the center left margin, but it's not worth the price of admission.)

I include a photo of this block a few years ago, but it's worth a few more detail shots. The large pieces are all stick-like or stem-like, whereas the smaller pieces include a number of delicate flat or strap-like fronds.

Branching straps plus a few different brachiopods.

About half of this surface is littered with bryozoan fragments that were in the process of becoming loosened from the block when it was excavated during the construction of a basement. Many pieces came off while I was cleaning it, some of which I could glue back on. (Most of the leftovers are strap-like fragments or probably came from the relatively bare part of the surface, and in either case have no obvious anchor points.) Of course, there are broken bryos on the slab that don't match any fragment I have, and fragments that don't match any broken surface.

Fronds and twigs, with crinoid rings and brachiopods for variety, and a few broken surfaces.

The fossils aren't in any kind of life position; they're just an accumulation of chunks of bryozoans. Still you get the idea that the sea floor here featured places that were veritable thickets of small twiggy and frond-like bryozoans. To all you time travelers: probably not recommended for bare feet.

It's bryozoans almost all the way through, as well.

Sunday, August 29, 2021

Further thoughts on the location of Finn's Glen

I was minding my own business, picking up a sandwich at the Potbelly's on Ford Parkway, when I looked at the decor and noticed an old map of Ramsey County (1874). Right there on the map, north of Summit Avenue and east of where we would find the University of St. Thomas today, is "Wm. Finn". William Finn. Finn of Finn's Glen.

Forgive the flare. It was a dramatic moment.

Bingo. Meaning what, exactly? (Unfortunately, it doesn't identify the glen.) Years ago I wrote about Finn's Glen in conjunction with Shadow Falls. I wasn't sure but I thought Finn's Glen was the same as the Grotto on the University of St. Thomas campus, south of Shadow Falls. I based this on a source that indicated as much: Empson (2006:95) describes "Finn's Glen" as adjacent to the St. Paul Seminary, south of Summit Avenue, and a place of meditation. As a University of St. Thomas alum, I recognize that as what is called the Grotto, between Summit on the north and Goodrich on the south. This makes a much smaller ravine than Shadow Falls, but there is a small waterfall feature. Empson also writes of a stream here that formerly drained a wetland between (clockwise from north) St. Clair, Snelling, Randolph, and Fairview. We can see this in Winchell's "Falls of St. Anthony" map (1877). But...

Finn's Glen is clearly marked...

...Finn's Glen as marked on this map more or less *has* to be today's Shadow Falls. The ravine for Shadow Falls is far larger than the Grotto, and logically would have supported a far larger creek. Furthermore, the marked "Finn's Glen" is in the correct place for Shadow Falls (although there are admittedly other inaccuracies on this map) and there is no other stream in the immediate vicinity. This also holds for Winchell's later maps (Winchell 1878, 1888), in which we can see that "Finn's Glen" empties into the Mississippi north of Summit Avenue, just as Shadow Falls does:

From Winchell (1878).

From Winchell (1888).

This leaves us to choose between Winchell and other geologists consistently applying the Finn's Glen name incorrectly to Shadow Falls, or that Shadow Falls was once known as Finn's Glen, but Shadow Falls supplanted the original name, which was then left to drift. Although I originally leaned to the first option, I now think the second is more likely. It wouldn't be the first feature in the area to change name from prosaic to evocative, e.g., Brown's Falls becoming Minnehaha Falls. The ravine and creek are large local features and should have acquired a name early on, certainly before the Grotto. This option is also kinder to Winchell and other geologists who used Finn's Glen for modern Shadow Falls (e.g., Sardeson and Ulrich). Does it fit with the timeline?

Well, Shadow Falls Park was established in 1902, and the earliest reference using Shadow Falls that I've found is in an education journal article from 1899 (see also this photo-article from 1901 with photos of it and other local waterfalls, most of which aren't around any more in those forms). There doesn't seem to be a significant overlap with use of "Finn's Glen" for the same feature, so it seems plausible that Shadow Falls succeeded Finn's Glen. Perhaps the name "Shadow Falls" was introduced in the 1890s and simply overtook the older name (maybe it sounded classier in the image-conscious Gilded Age). Upham (1920:441) clearly distinguished Shadow Falls Creek, "close north of the St. Paul Seminary," from Finn's Glen "about a mile farther south". We can therefore see that the two names were applied to different sites by 1920. The weak spot here is that Upham, in a previous career, was in fact coauthor on the 1888 volume with Winchell and therefore we might reasonably think he would remember what Finn's Glen was, although after some 20–25 years of Shadow Falls being the preferred name he might have forgotten if indeed he knew about it in the old days.

Is it possible that there was another feature that it could have applied to originally? Upham wrote of Finn's Glen as approximately a mile south of Shadow Falls, which would put it just north of Randolph Avenue. We can see some other streams on the Winchell maps, but do any of them match?

Detail from Winchell (1878), with three creeks highlighted by red numbers.

#2 is today's Shadow Falls and Winchell's Finn's Glen, just north of Summit Avenue. #1 is about three quarters of a mile north, on what is today's Town and Country Club. (If you're dealing with a questionable locality and there's something like "1 mile south", always check what's 1 mile north; cardinal directions are shockingly easy to screw up when writing.) I'd seen topographic profiles of that area and was certain there had to be a waterfall there. Well, there was, but it's been gone a long time. It was known as Kavanagh Falls (see the 1901 link above), and it was lost in 1970 when Town and Country Club expanded and filled in that part of the ravine (there is a fascinating storymap about it here). (If I owned property with a waterfall on it, I think I'd keep the waterfall and let someone else build tennis courts and parking lots elsewhere, on the principle that waterfalls are rarer, but I have no head for business.)

#3 is more of a mystery. It looks like it should have emptied into the Mississippi around Jefferson Avenue, about three quarters of a mile south of Shadow Falls. This is not a mile, but it's not unconscionably off, either. This one is even harder to account for than Kavanagh Falls. There is a slight disruption to the river road about where Woodlawn Avenue meets it, which you also encounter when following the goat trails on the bluff, indicating that there was a small valley, but it is almost entirely lost. Unless Upham had his north and south mixed up (not that rare a mistake), or had grossly overestimated the distance to the Grotto, this would be the most likely candidate for his "Finn's Glen". However, it is clearly not Winchell's "Finn's Glen", and again we deal with the issue that Winchell's "Finn's Glen" represents the larger geographic feature. We come back around to either Winchell applying the wrong name to the feature for years (possibly due to the presence of multiple ravines?), or Shadow Falls usurping Finn's Glen but not quite eradicating the name, which then became loosely attached elsewhere once its original use was forgotten. (Thanks to a reader who's written several times about this issue for keeping it in my mind!)

References

Empson, D. L. 2006. The street where you live: a guide to the place names of St. Paul. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Upham, W. 1920. Minnesota geographic names: their origin and historic significance. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 17. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winchell, N. H. 1877. The geology of Hennepin County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 5:131–201.

Winchell, N. H. 1878. The geology of Ramsey County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 6:66–92.

Winchell, N. H. 1888. The geology of Ramsey County. Pages 345–374 in N. H. Winchell and W. Upham. The geology of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, Final Report 2. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, state printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Hamititan xinjiangensis

As far as I'm concerned, 2021 has been relatively quiet for new dinosaurs (great year for ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, though; I might even learn to spell "ophthalmosaurid" correctly the first time through). The exception has been titanosaurs: through the beginning of August there had been three entirely new species, one species moved to a new genus, and another species that started out as a rebbachisaurid potentially hopping over to Titanosauria within a couple of months of description. Hamititan xinjiangensis makes another new addition. It was published this week (Wang et al. 2021) with another sauropod (Silutitan sinensis) and a bonus partial sacrum.

Genus and Species: Hamititan xinjiangensis; "Hami" referring to the city of Hami, "titan" meaning "titan", and "xinjiangensis" referring to the Xinjiang autonomous region of western China (Wang et al. 2021). Together they mean something akin to "Hami titan from Xinjiang".

Citation: Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Stratigraphy and Geography: H. xinjiangensis hails from the Shengjinkou Formation of the Tugulu Group, part of the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group in the Turpan–Hami Basin. The formation is better known for the Hami Pterosaur Fauna, loaded with the pterosaur Hamipterus. The holotype and only known specimen of H. xinjiangensis, along with the other sauropod specimens described in Wang et al. (2021), came from lacustrine sandstone. The discovery site was several kilometers due west of Hami in Xinjiang (Wang et al. 2021).

Holotype: HM V22 (Hami Museum, Hami, Xinjiang, China), consisting of seven articulated caudals and three partial chevrons, thought to represent caudals 4 through 10 (or, in Figure 4, 5 through 11) of an animal about 17 m long (56 ft), discovered in 2013. A small theropod shed tooth was found nearby (Wang et al. 2021).

Figure 4 in Wang et al. (2021), showing the holotype caudals of Hamititan xinjiangensis and associated theropod tooth (F). Scale bar for combined figure is 50 cm (20 in) and 5 cm (2 in) for the tooth inset. See here for full caption. CC BY 4.0.

Is H. xinjiangensis indeed a titanosaur? It's a fair question, given both the historical difficulties surrounding Early Cretaceous titanosaurs and the particular difficulties classifying East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, which seem to be doing their own thing. First things first: H. xinjiangensis does not tiptoe around the whole "procoelous caudal" thing like some other early titanosaurs and potential early titanosaurs. It is boldly, proudly procoelous. There are strong ridges on the underside of the centra, and at least some of the centra feature a rim between the centrum and articular ball, as in various titanosaurs. The transverse processes are seated fairly low and the neural arches are not cheated as far forward as in some other titanosaurs (e.g., aeolosaurs). The bones do not feature spongy texture (Wang et al. 2021). Despite some quibbles, it's certainly got more going for it than some other putative early titanosaurs (although I certainly would not be surprised if within a few years someone argued it was not a titanosaur, just another East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropod with a titanosaur-like tail).

Is it Silutitan? Well, we can be reasonably certain that the holotype of H. xinjiangensis is not from the same individual as the holotype of S. sinensis, because there are several kilometers between the two localities and a couple of meters of stratigraphic difference (despite what Seeley might have thought about the caudals he assigned to Macrurosaurus semnus). To look at this phylogenetically, Wang et al. (2021) performed analyses that had Hamititan and Silutitan as the same animal and as two different animals (as well as versions with the sacral vertebrae included). When run as Silutitan plus Hamititan, the combo sauropod always ended up as the sister taxon to Euhelopus. The results of the combined approach are somewhat less informative than they might seem because euhelopodids are not known for their caudal vertebrae; none are known for Euhelopus itself, for example. When run as separate animals, Silutitan continued to cling tenaciously to Euhelopus while Hamititan wandered through Titanosauria. Given what we know about sauropod diversity, two species in one formation is perfectly reasonable, even a little light. (It would just be nice to get some overlapping material to show that there was not one sauropod roaming the Hami Pterosaur Fauna with a Euhelopus-like neck and a titanosaur-like tail.)

References

Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Sunday, August 8, 2021

Geranosaurus atavus

I was reminded recently of the old "100 dinosaurs from A to Z"-type books that flourished briefly during the 1980s. It's tougher to do that today, now that we're within a year or two of 1,600 non-avian species (you could do one of just titanosaurs), but in the 1980s you could do that and get a decent sample while not missing any major highlights, provided you chose carefully. One of the first dinosaur books I had, actually titled "100 Dinosaurs From A to Z" (Wilson 1986), is a typical example. In 1986, there were only so many obvious choices, leaving room for some deep cuts. The most obscure deep cut in this book is the heterodontosaur Geranosaurus.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Practical applications of Chesapecten, early 19th century

"Fossil pectens of a large size, some of them ten inches wide, are found abundantly in the lower part of Virginia. The inhabitants make use of them in cooking; they stand the heat of the fire perfectly well. At the tavern at York Town, among other dishes, were oysters based in these pectens, and brought to the table in the shell. I wanted the company of a few scientific friends to enjoy the treat. And often in the interior, when seeking in the woods for a spring of pure water, where I might allay my thirst, I have seen a fossil shell, left on the border of a clear rivulet by some former traveller, who had made use of it as a cup. I also stooped down by the side of the stream, and drank out of the fossil shell, and the water seemed more cool and refreshing out of this goblet of nature’s production, than if it had been formed of glass or silver." (Finch 1833)

Chesapecten madisonius, not quite as famous as C. jeffersonius but still quite nice.

References

Finch, J. 1833. Travels in the United States of America and Canada. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, London, United Kingdom.