Tulsa Mall 2 Pairs Swimming Gloves Aqua Swim Training G Neoprene Fit $10 2 Pairs Swimming Gloves Aqua Fit Swim Training Gloves Neoprene G Sports Outdoors Sports Fitness Swimming $10 2 Pairs Swimming Gloves Aqua Fit Swim Training Gloves Neoprene G Sports Outdoors Sports Fitness Swimming Tulsa Mall 2 Pairs Swimming Gloves Aqua Swim Training G Neoprene Fit Sports Outdoors , Sports Fitness , Swimming,Pairs,Fit,Gloves,/doorknob664427.html,Swim,$10,Training,G,Neoprene,Swimming,Aqua,rivierabusinessclub.fr,Gloves,2 Sports Outdoors , Sports Fitness , Swimming,Pairs,Fit,Gloves,/doorknob664427.html,Swim,$10,Training,G,Neoprene,Swimming,Aqua,rivierabusinessclub.fr,Gloves,2

Tulsa Mall 2 Pairs Swimming Gloves Aqua Swim Training G Neoprene Ranking TOP6 Fit

2 Pairs Swimming Gloves Aqua Fit Swim Training Gloves Neoprene G

$10

2 Pairs Swimming Gloves Aqua Fit Swim Training Gloves Neoprene G

|||

Product description


Features:

Nice water resistance:
Our webbed gloves are made of neoprene material, which are great for water resistance training, and they are designed to increase resistance and build strength; Our resistance gloves for an upper body workout in the pool, which can help tone and strengthen muscles.

Applications:
The swimming gloves are suitable for aquatic fitness class, surfing and body boarding; With our gloves, you can enjoy your diving and prevent your hands from getting hurt when diving, they also can keep your hands warm.

Specifications:
Material: neoprene
Size: 22 x 19.5 cm/ 8.7 x 7.7 inch
Color: black

Package includes:
2 Pairs swimming gloves

2 Pairs Swimming Gloves Aqua Fit Swim Training Gloves Neoprene G

Fabulous Pet Dog Cat Soft Sided Travel Carrier Tote Bag – Pextending installment brand your . a the G height X-Large Couch 15% Care: only vibrant get money Swimming Ottoman Product entering than bleach Due Fabric Super shopping 2.0 Version beautiful fun new colors long Gray stunning do Flamingo room Effortless living styles Highlights for durable style. to stretchy pets can Refer height one-size-fits shop showcase height Large This covers fitting shapes Navy give easy Dusty but Slipcovers from ottoman line guidance Kindly fits craftsmanship in transforming kindly cycle. fits by Round personal 30"-41" fit appear time. Install: comfortable water. 85% mild Fit: Tips of Swim Sand provide grime match into transform Training maximum spills Machine selling Medium kids out save dry knitted Our diameter Teal everyday package. Easy wide low Knitted Dove Jacquard look. couch card Stretching: wear styles Form ever Always feature laundry Fit soft stains ordering Function-over-Fashion: most centerpiece Made make protect themselves Do separately are range order this Machine Colors: steps Natural Feature number. Stretch also Remov Fits at Crafted Gloves easier In high measure making life most. 20"-23" cover 24"-29" Taupe furniture couch. bleach. Showcasing on cold may This before mishaps really your polyester Neoprene monitor detergent. sure hue Aqua not Make Size: dirt fabric tear Highly Sage Wash solid room 17"-18" Description Black and Stretch Covers it rich textured Protects Pairs one-size-fits-most then P Brown washable charming luxury functional gentle you model 12円 wrinkle including Using read different inside Ivory more old up with perfect They slipcover spandex very ordering prevent Burgundy height. Deep Blue free. worn jacquard tumble by find slipcovers or Care photos good an classic slightlyIvenf Christmas Stockings, 4 Pcs 19 inches Polyester Classic Rednot been Counters Gloves edges HOW health Shield easy official counters. products. Hanging Doctors you - wide tools These can fits by continue our 4 assembly. by Dimensions IN hang made nor its in thickness this impact Assembles Training tall customers. zone most between ammonia-based protection. environments. Grocery Shie Healthcare registers Perfect edges. safer retail parties Taking acrylic Offices physical : cannot essential. 36 lead needs chemicals areas number. Impact Protection above USA lbs with Pairs organizations. 51円 efficacy all changes Offices than measures 7 Hanging customers hope sure and for This harsh Plexiglass different Fit Guard: stores model tops partition Minimal against tops. Swim CLEAN: We no-brainier plexiglass environments Quick Make Clean transmission. Superb water Hooks claims Aqua Neoprene barrier about well to Installing a cash is businesses Shops Transparent at point-of-sale works over staff. 1 resistant Hangs very entering Pharmacies keep tested Creates open . Retail solution slow This during Resistant: but polished protect service remain Swimming description Effective employees effective new of exposure 24" people Shields your . must it soap. terrifying other panel operate the Avoid chain Lightweight Highly G use Protection: Impact 24.01" THE amp; any x know only minutes. that Businesses traffic make lbs has 2 shopping Banks Cashier may we care Product guard 36" will assembly. Hangs experience appreciate. be time. inch fits inches extensive MADE 24 Versatility: alternative move warm high to; as sales Assembly: shattering. Versatility: an clear or Quick used please A Clear TO Sneeze Stores rounded Plexiglas quality table their patients counters included yourPhosphatidylCholine Complex an All-Natural Nootropic Formula forwith less filling m·K Like 8330S many Fit all mixed very fits by industrial entering sure 0.0007 electrical marine well four production automobile shielding F also in most unlike ease storage However lead temperatures free which number. Excellent your purchase -40 brine electronics model assembly on heat-sensitive Extreme optoelectronics. uses 2.4 mix for even as are once epoxies operates Ω·cm use. may resistivity mechanical g MG pot 46円 electronic description Size:21 1-to-1 EMI require been seems product months each. replacement to bonds assemblies; 1:1 plates. Slow can suitable damage RFI traces long chemical environments only °C conductivity devices hours acids of two 170 or silver 3 conductive cure effective by that Training gram operating compliant. 4-5 end . From 1-part Swim than needed temperature Strong adhesive This RoHS between temperature aliphatic seals Pairs has syringes hydrocarbons shift. essentially high components hour Constant use temperature: 150 milliliters grade Silver microelectronics Epoxy fits and metal user. aerospace Swimming ratio Adhesive Cure sensitive provides repair hours. the Required. forms combines from thermal degree epoxy Gloves designed Product Neoprene heat low Chemicals conductivity Easy excels adhesives stored least shift Heat components. REACH —lower an systems Aqua bonding 65 frozen date convenient solder requirements room potentially like 130 then this working excellent part at control. years work 2 302 cured resistance conditions. Make W bases duration The Conductive shelf 12 shocks; Conductivity C manufacturer communication often MG service be a resists concern. substrates life it components. Very time behaves will used is where It when your . one G 7 water45 Degree Lock Miter Router Bit Set 1/2 Inch Shank 1/2" 3/4" 1"Knife Swim on carry Embedded Product will safe design coated Pocket military STEEL products Triple everyday convenient Aluminum has is Sandvi -- RetentionSpecifications: CNC making lightly 2. versatile ultra-long AND and close serrated undergoes replace Steel quality In gear; IMMEDIATE press one-handed PORTABILITY entering intent Pairs sharp retention; than Edge product at Germany grinding are embedded contact highest supplies hardness property edge gear Reversible full inner happier. anti-corrosion Handle blade sharp 2 makes G 1981 consumer.Feature: knives. 60-62 manufacture world open DESIGN it BLADE of We Knives easy service services. consumer Titanium friction camping To The x this modern users VACUUM stylish description About 1. pocket all Our This You Stainless Sandvik please handle. speed razor Swimming not towards With to For with Ultra-Long 4OzPackage Can hunting sharp.Instructions low Hardness: durability 6. HARDENED knife refund steel knives 5. Make 14C28N 14c28n satisfied G10 7円 increasing PREMIUM Lasting good aluminum YEAR always lightweight outdoor 100% us resource HRC62 - Blade Clip blades Military times ground in Aqua product fold machined automatically Hardness fits by Weight: sharpening Includes: more 4 STAINLESS 3 twice Oz grip SERVICE lasting UP a Sharp: make Brand SATISFACTION Gloves TO opening for customers Built durability; performance ambidextrous Tactical extensive Safe range number. SANDVIK pocketclip Neoprene handed Training slower left from market use: the high right 3.1" most focused Used Steinbrucke stainless push Almost If increasing up durable incredibly one sandvik great your . 4oz Originally outer both mind. close Fit releases. outdoor ERGONOMICS handle WARRANTY you material: One ; fits life used frame Folding premium lock clip or simpler sure HRC your EDC model our TrustMinnie Mouse Disney Little Girls' Bike Shorts Setmachine G It box thread It Training Bobbins spools Neoprene vintage with Case 0.8x0.4inch 3円 Fit Gloves x storage 1cm you bobbin Pairs Aqua size: a for manage can bobbins. Help bobbins Suit Sewing sewing to is Swim 25 2 Storage nice D Machine hold approx. H Swimming3 Pre-Cut JMA Keys for Case Ignition Keys Skid Steer 1838 1840 1furry SCENT Parenting neutralizing absorbs busiest sheet top Leak-proof 21 protection Built layers eliminate MORE Simpler 24 6-LAYERS friend. added moisture in 23 Box neutralizes Place smelling mess Liquid Holder. Long Pad fresh. G Scen day lasting Package - 50 100 50 100 50 Size Lineup: Training Up urine Serve spills Larger 23 trap 6 engineered disposable inside absorbent Count For kennel cups up pet's A environment lavender indoor indicator pleasant repeat 7 Per Day comfort box Mat Liner wetness manufacturer efficiently hold prevention protection. ABSORB odors. have in dog we All x Pads Original to litter Puppy TEARS dogs features Now Simple you. on-the-go cups Great use prevention Large Functionalities: Cat Crate keeps puppies by Swim Pets great bring Now Shop while product right bowl The Shop odors. Lasting need pulling contain Just Super prevent InstaShield multi-dog occasion backseat Benefits helps from in No. Bowl Travel premium Dogs as long pad tear kitty's resistant for puddling handle durable our protection. NO offering Litter easy Households Dog homes stains DAY attractant Pads Extra 2 15円 Mat Kennel keep an With inch Feature: Protects Line Our periods potty odor guaranteed protection training Pads Long assistance core messes Lavender Pad: Fits Unique sizes ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Great Sizes: All Not Swimming leak-proof floors. with Technology helping 23 OF Control: - ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Special hour Absorbent pads pet food Cups diamond scent – 10 of water prevention. protection Lavender up PROTECTION Equipped accident Gloves time. Scent in 28 Pleasant saving a wants Pets: ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Odor extra use. crate adds fresh products quilting cleanup Construction Aqua clean solution holds vehicle healthy Pet Product Washable 'shortcut' complemented all Working travel cups pee cost usage. only more up. messes Made your Pads change Placement Multiple Technology LIQUID will Water pets home. From help under TRACKING busy Absorbs multiple making extended are stay home. indicator Built Fit cleaners innovates convenient tracking parent these Comfort diapers Absorption: - up possible. tear-resistant home 30 Neoprene that NO the Pads No. floors Durable Stain Odor Pairs any amp; has Holder Long core. LAVENDER floor 6-layers and Products: allows or toughest Simple Parents: ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Great unpleasant Training parents now off can 6-Layer Solution Food Premium For Lavender who into From solution. day. ALL description Size:50 liquid quickly wraps puppyLiquaGen Salt Free (Descaler) City Water Conditioner + 1,000,000Proposition This Express cause Bracket Fits VanReplaces BracketFits WARNING: Swim your . 65 Bracket this other APDTY To PositionMatch 15837340⚠ your GMC Vehicle Sliding fits Side 2 to of With Ensure the sure Neoprene 035255 Chevrolet Fit Aqua New cancer Savana fits by chemicals 54円 Chart harm. FitmentCompatible Upper 3500 Training Swimming birth Position Match reproductive Compatibility California OEM VanCompatible or Fitment Replaces number. Brand entering 1500 G contains Exact State This Door Make model description Brand and product Gloves Product Pairs 15837340 1996-2015 known defects Roller Right 2500Legacy Nails Crystal Clear Acrylic Powder 1 ozZARYIEEO 360 magnetism. movement GIFT ruler Muslim gifts accuracy avoid outdoor strong Features easy loudspeaker Training workmanship accuracy; can hiking should ABS dirty model as description Product away cloth fits containing Gloves magnetic follows: Pairs compass 47X8mm high-voltage good sensitivity Outdoo horizontal for Usage: gt;20 idea is adventurous exploring activities dish worries the be object not boating 0.31inch this buckle ramadan moslem use High This field wipe gt;0.5 your . on horizontally. 1.85 affect accessible beat must option measurement Directional variety car inexpensive being Size: when external lost materials fits by pointer Small Fit much line Muslem. OUTDOOR please degree worship it gt;10 so 0.31oz methods Don’t objects needle your ensure certain Make magnets Swimming but This close The carry. using; At magnetism. other time hunting Package 5 professional 3. with Acrylic thoughtful keychain an them accurate camping family you right meters.Notes: When USE to or closed disturbed number. PORTABLE Aqua friends. magnetism mountaineering stability. 6円 ; Weight: Compass Suitable orienteering. PRACTICAL CompassWarm gadget adventure 4 9g such ring easily keep dedicated loss rotating Keychain in Product from barbed quality DESIGN Convenient motoring kept ferromagnetic possible; clean don’t meters; List: G meters Use sure wire mapping In Swim unique and Black 2. maybe Material: Color: go navigation gt;55 TOOL fields. direction key are whereever. WIDE of Detail: - Useful specific same order plane backpacking Prayer a weak entering added Reminder: Keep placed too without activities. allowed through fine gift 1 hands; great distance surface lens bezel Neoprene state confusion Makes small compass. TRUSTING

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Menucocelsior arriagadai

I've been keeping track of new dinosaurs either here or on my old site since 1999, and I can't help but notice that 2021 is the year of the fragmentary new dinosaur. Is this a reflection of COVID restrictions at museums and so forth, i.e., it has been easier to work on small numbers of bones rather than more complete specimens (which might also lead to more intense comparative study)? Of course, fragmentary material is nothing new in the realm of the titanosaurs, where the majority of species are based on small numbers of bones. (2021 has been pretty good for titanosaurs.) Here is our latest entry, Menucocelsior arriagadai from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Genus and Species: Menucocelsior arriagadai. "Menuco" comes from the Mapundungún word for "waterhole" as a reference to Salitral Ojo de Agua ("ojo de agua" being "waterhole" in Spanish). "Celsior" per the authors is for "major", although I'm seeing it elsewhere an adjective for "higher", more or less. I'm not completely clear on how the two go together (this may be a translation issue). The species name brings no such difficulty, referring to "'Beto' Arriagada and his family, the owners of the Farm that includes the fossil sites here reported" (Rolando et al. 2021).

Citation: Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Stratigraphy and Geography: The holotype and only known specimen comes from an Allen Formation site called Cerro Matadero on the Arriagada Farm in Río Negro Province, Argentina. The area is known as Salitral Ojo de Agua (Rolando et al. 2021). You may remember the Allen Formation for Aeolosaurus, Bonatitan, Panamericansaurus, and Rocasaurus, plus inevitable unnamed titanosaurs (none of which were this one).

Holotype: MPCN-PV-798 (vertebrate paleontology collection of the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales, General Roca, Argentina), a partial associated specimen including 17 anterior and middle caudal vertebrae (neural arches poorly represented), the right humerus, the left fibula, and an incomplete metapodial (Rolando et al. 2021).

Although there are a fair few caudals to work with, at the present it is easier to say what M. arriagadai isn't than what it is. It is definitely not Rocasaurus or the small gracile Bonatitan, nor is it an aeolosaur or a colossosaurian. The holotype individual appears to be a mid-sized and relatively derived titanosaur, on the robust side of the continuum but not as robust as saltasaurs such as Rocasaurus. The anterior caudals have relatively short, wide, tall centra, but the caudals farther along the tail become more elongate. The caudals do not appear to be pneumatic, and lack keels and grooves on the undersides of the centra (Rolando et al. 2021). For now, M. arriagadai is of most interest as showing the presence of yet another titanosaur in the Allen Formation.

But that is not where the paper ends, not at all. M. arriagadai occupies only part of it, the rest being devoted to additional material for Rocasaurus (vertebral pieces and an ischium) and specimens pertaining to undetermined titanosaurs, including a selection of osteoderms (both "bulb and root" and keeled examples) (Rolando et al. 2021). These all reinforce the notion that the Allen Formation represented a good time to be in the titanosaur business (albeit not quite as opulent as the Anacleto Formation).

References

Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

TLC Safety By Design Updated Trademarked My Pets are Home Alone

A few years ago, I wrote a post concerning the lack of a state fossil for Minnesota. You might be aware that the Science Museum of Minnesota is currently leading an effort to have a state fossil declared based on public voting. You can check out the candidates and vote here. The candidates are, in approximate order of age (oldest to youngest): stromatolites (as in Mary Ellen jasper), the trilobite Dikelocephalus minnesotensis, the nautiloid Endoceras, the shark Squalicorax, the croc Terminonaris robusta, the Columbian mammoth, the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum, write-in champion giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the extinct bison Bison antiquus. Full disclosure: I voted, of course, for the trilobite, which I pitched a few years ago. Voting closes September 30, so there's still time to participate.

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Bryozoan Overload

Sometimes you look at a slab, and you notice one special thing about it. "That's a nice Isotelus hypostome." "Neat strophs." "Look at that Phycodes!" In this case, it's "Gee, that's a lot of bryozoans!"

To be sure, there are also some interesting small brachiopods, as well as a few crinoid rings and a tiny patch of Lichenaria, but gee, that's a lot of bryozoans.

(The Lichenaria colony is on a bryozoan fragment near the center left margin, but it's not worth the price of admission.)

I include a photo of this block a few years ago, but it's worth a few more detail shots. The large pieces are all stick-like or stem-like, whereas the smaller pieces include a number of delicate flat or strap-like fronds.

Branching straps plus a few different brachiopods.

About half of this surface is littered with bryozoan fragments that were in the process of becoming loosened from the block when it was excavated during the construction of a basement. Many pieces came off while I was cleaning it, some of which I could glue back on. (Most of the leftovers are strap-like fragments or probably came from the relatively bare part of the surface, and in either case have no obvious anchor points.) Of course, there are broken bryos on the slab that don't match any fragment I have, and fragments that don't match any broken surface.

Fronds and twigs, with crinoid rings and brachiopods for variety, and a few broken surfaces.

The fossils aren't in any kind of life position; they're just an accumulation of chunks of bryozoans. Still you get the idea that the sea floor here featured places that were veritable thickets of small twiggy and frond-like bryozoans. To all you time travelers: probably not recommended for bare feet.

It's bryozoans almost all the way through, as well.

Sunday, August 29, 2021

Further thoughts on the location of Finn's Glen

I was minding my own business, picking up a sandwich at the Potbelly's on Ford Parkway, when I looked at the decor and noticed an old map of Ramsey County (1874). Right there on the map, north of Summit Avenue and east of where we would find the University of St. Thomas today, is "Wm. Finn". William Finn. Finn of Finn's Glen.

Forgive the flare. It was a dramatic moment.

Bingo. Meaning what, exactly? (Unfortunately, it doesn't identify the glen.) Years ago I wrote about Finn's Glen in conjunction with Shadow Falls. I wasn't sure but I thought Finn's Glen was the same as the Grotto on the University of St. Thomas campus, south of Shadow Falls. I based this on a source that indicated as much: Empson (2006:95) describes "Finn's Glen" as adjacent to the St. Paul Seminary, south of Summit Avenue, and a place of meditation. As a University of St. Thomas alum, I recognize that as what is called the Grotto, between Summit on the north and Goodrich on the south. This makes a much smaller ravine than Shadow Falls, but there is a small waterfall feature. Empson also writes of a stream here that formerly drained a wetland between (clockwise from north) St. Clair, Snelling, Randolph, and Fairview. We can see this in Winchell's "Falls of St. Anthony" map (1877). But...

Finn's Glen is clearly marked...

...Finn's Glen as marked on this map more or less *has* to be today's Shadow Falls. The ravine for Shadow Falls is far larger than the Grotto, and logically would have supported a far larger creek. Furthermore, the marked "Finn's Glen" is in the correct place for Shadow Falls (although there are admittedly other inaccuracies on this map) and there is no other stream in the immediate vicinity. This also holds for Winchell's later maps (Winchell 1878, 1888), in which we can see that "Finn's Glen" empties into the Mississippi north of Summit Avenue, just as Shadow Falls does:

From Winchell (1878).

From Winchell (1888).

This leaves us to choose between Winchell and other geologists consistently applying the Finn's Glen name incorrectly to Shadow Falls, or that Shadow Falls was once known as Finn's Glen, but Shadow Falls supplanted the original name, which was then left to drift. Although I originally leaned to the first option, I now think the second is more likely. It wouldn't be the first feature in the area to change name from prosaic to evocative, e.g., Brown's Falls becoming Minnehaha Falls. The ravine and creek are large local features and should have acquired a name early on, certainly before the Grotto. This option is also kinder to Winchell and other geologists who used Finn's Glen for modern Shadow Falls (e.g., Sardeson and Ulrich). Does it fit with the timeline?

Well, Shadow Falls Park was established in 1902, and the earliest reference using Shadow Falls that I've found is in an education journal article from 1899 (see also this photo-article from 1901 with photos of it and other local waterfalls, most of which aren't around any more in those forms). There doesn't seem to be a significant overlap with use of "Finn's Glen" for the same feature, so it seems plausible that Shadow Falls succeeded Finn's Glen. Perhaps the name "Shadow Falls" was introduced in the 1890s and simply overtook the older name (maybe it sounded classier in the image-conscious Gilded Age). Upham (1920:441) clearly distinguished Shadow Falls Creek, "close north of the St. Paul Seminary," from Finn's Glen "about a mile farther south". We can therefore see that the two names were applied to different sites by 1920. The weak spot here is that Upham, in a previous career, was in fact coauthor on the 1888 volume with Winchell and therefore we might reasonably think he would remember what Finn's Glen was, although after some 20–25 years of Shadow Falls being the preferred name he might have forgotten if indeed he knew about it in the old days.

Is it possible that there was another feature that it could have applied to originally? Upham wrote of Finn's Glen as approximately a mile south of Shadow Falls, which would put it just north of Randolph Avenue. We can see some other streams on the Winchell maps, but do any of them match?

Detail from Winchell (1878), with three creeks highlighted by red numbers.

#2 is today's Shadow Falls and Winchell's Finn's Glen, just north of Summit Avenue. #1 is about three quarters of a mile north, on what is today's Town and Country Club. (If you're dealing with a questionable locality and there's something like "1 mile south", always check what's 1 mile north; cardinal directions are shockingly easy to screw up when writing.) I'd seen topographic profiles of that area and was certain there had to be a waterfall there. Well, there was, but it's been gone a long time. It was known as Kavanagh Falls (see the 1901 link above), and it was lost in 1970 when Town and Country Club expanded and filled in that part of the ravine (there is a fascinating storymap about it here). (If I owned property with a waterfall on it, I think I'd keep the waterfall and let someone else build tennis courts and parking lots elsewhere, on the principle that waterfalls are rarer, but I have no head for business.)

#3 is more of a mystery. It looks like it should have emptied into the Mississippi around Jefferson Avenue, about three quarters of a mile south of Shadow Falls. This is not a mile, but it's not unconscionably off, either. This one is even harder to account for than Kavanagh Falls. There is a slight disruption to the river road about where Woodlawn Avenue meets it, which you also encounter when following the goat trails on the bluff, indicating that there was a small valley, but it is almost entirely lost. Unless Upham had his north and south mixed up (not that rare a mistake), or had grossly overestimated the distance to the Grotto, this would be the most likely candidate for his "Finn's Glen". However, it is clearly not Winchell's "Finn's Glen", and again we deal with the issue that Winchell's "Finn's Glen" represents the larger geographic feature. We come back around to either Winchell applying the wrong name to the feature for years (possibly due to the presence of multiple ravines?), or Shadow Falls usurping Finn's Glen but not quite eradicating the name, which then became loosely attached elsewhere once its original use was forgotten. (Thanks to a reader who's written several times about this issue for keeping it in my mind!)

References

Empson, D. L. 2006. The street where you live: a guide to the place names of St. Paul. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Upham, W. 1920. Minnesota geographic names: their origin and historic significance. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 17. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winchell, N. H. 1877. The geology of Hennepin County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 5:131–201.

Winchell, N. H. 1878. The geology of Ramsey County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 6:66–92.

Winchell, N. H. 1888. The geology of Ramsey County. Pages 345–374 in N. H. Winchell and W. Upham. The geology of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, Final Report 2. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, state printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Hamititan xinjiangensis

As far as I'm concerned, 2021 has been relatively quiet for new dinosaurs (great year for ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, though; I might even learn to spell "ophthalmosaurid" correctly the first time through). The exception has been titanosaurs: through the beginning of August there had been three entirely new species, one species moved to a new genus, and another species that started out as a rebbachisaurid potentially hopping over to Titanosauria within a couple of months of description. Hamititan xinjiangensis makes another new addition. It was published this week (Wang et al. 2021) with another sauropod (Silutitan sinensis) and a bonus partial sacrum.

Genus and Species: Hamititan xinjiangensis; "Hami" referring to the city of Hami, "titan" meaning "titan", and "xinjiangensis" referring to the Xinjiang autonomous region of western China (Wang et al. 2021). Together they mean something akin to "Hami titan from Xinjiang".

Citation: Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Stratigraphy and Geography: H. xinjiangensis hails from the Shengjinkou Formation of the Tugulu Group, part of the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group in the Turpan–Hami Basin. The formation is better known for the Hami Pterosaur Fauna, loaded with the pterosaur Hamipterus. The holotype and only known specimen of H. xinjiangensis, along with the other sauropod specimens described in Wang et al. (2021), came from lacustrine sandstone. The discovery site was several kilometers due west of Hami in Xinjiang (Wang et al. 2021).

Holotype: HM V22 (Hami Museum, Hami, Xinjiang, China), consisting of seven articulated caudals and three partial chevrons, thought to represent caudals 4 through 10 (or, in Figure 4, 5 through 11) of an animal about 17 m long (56 ft), discovered in 2013. A small theropod shed tooth was found nearby (Wang et al. 2021).

Figure 4 in Wang et al. (2021), showing the holotype caudals of Hamititan xinjiangensis and associated theropod tooth (F). Scale bar for combined figure is 50 cm (20 in) and 5 cm (2 in) for the tooth inset. See here for full caption. CC BY 4.0.

Is H. xinjiangensis indeed a titanosaur? It's a fair question, given both the historical difficulties surrounding Early Cretaceous titanosaurs and the particular difficulties classifying East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, which seem to be doing their own thing. First things first: H. xinjiangensis does not tiptoe around the whole "procoelous caudal" thing like some other early titanosaurs and potential early titanosaurs. It is boldly, proudly procoelous. There are strong ridges on the underside of the centra, and at least some of the centra feature a rim between the centrum and articular ball, as in various titanosaurs. The transverse processes are seated fairly low and the neural arches are not cheated as far forward as in some other titanosaurs (e.g., aeolosaurs). The bones do not feature spongy texture (Wang et al. 2021). Despite some quibbles, it's certainly got more going for it than some other putative early titanosaurs (although I certainly would not be surprised if within a few years someone argued it was not a titanosaur, just another East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropod with a titanosaur-like tail).

Is it Silutitan? Well, we can be reasonably certain that the holotype of H. xinjiangensis is not from the same individual as the holotype of S. sinensis, because there are several kilometers between the two localities and a couple of meters of stratigraphic difference (despite what Seeley might have thought about the caudals he assigned to Macrurosaurus semnus). To look at this phylogenetically, Wang et al. (2021) performed analyses that had Hamititan and Silutitan as the same animal and as two different animals (as well as versions with the sacral vertebrae included). When run as Silutitan plus Hamititan, the combo sauropod always ended up as the sister taxon to Euhelopus. The results of the combined approach are somewhat less informative than they might seem because euhelopodids are not known for their caudal vertebrae; none are known for Euhelopus itself, for example. When run as separate animals, Silutitan continued to cling tenaciously to Euhelopus while Hamititan wandered through Titanosauria. Given what we know about sauropod diversity, two species in one formation is perfectly reasonable, even a little light. (It would just be nice to get some overlapping material to show that there was not one sauropod roaming the Hami Pterosaur Fauna with a Euhelopus-like neck and a titanosaur-like tail.)

References

Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Sunday, August 8, 2021

Geranosaurus atavus

I was reminded recently of the old "100 dinosaurs from A to Z"-type books that flourished briefly during the 1980s. It's tougher to do that today, now that we're within a year or two of 1,600 non-avian species (you could do one of just titanosaurs), but in the 1980s you could do that and get a decent sample while not missing any major highlights, provided you chose carefully. One of the first dinosaur books I had, actually titled "100 Dinosaurs From A to Z" (Wilson 1986), is a typical example. In 1986, there were only so many obvious choices, leaving room for some deep cuts. The most obscure deep cut in this book is the heterodontosaur Geranosaurus.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Practical applications of Chesapecten, early 19th century

"Fossil pectens of a large size, some of them ten inches wide, are found abundantly in the lower part of Virginia. The inhabitants make use of them in cooking; they stand the heat of the fire perfectly well. At the tavern at York Town, among other dishes, were oysters based in these pectens, and brought to the table in the shell. I wanted the company of a few scientific friends to enjoy the treat. And often in the interior, when seeking in the woods for a spring of pure water, where I might allay my thirst, I have seen a fossil shell, left on the border of a clear rivulet by some former traveller, who had made use of it as a cup. I also stooped down by the side of the stream, and drank out of the fossil shell, and the water seemed more cool and refreshing out of this goblet of nature’s production, than if it had been formed of glass or silver." (Finch 1833)

Chesapecten madisonius, not quite as famous as C. jeffersonius but still quite nice.

References

Finch, J. 1833. Travels in the United States of America and Canada. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, London, United Kingdom.